Gennaro Varriale obtained a PhD in History from the University of Genoa and the University de Valencia, studying the role of the Kingdom of Naples in Habsburg intelligence against the Ottoman Empire. He has published several academic articles and monographs on communication and espionage in the early modern period. He was recently awarded a María Zambrano fellowship at the University of Valencia with the project Informar de la plaga. La Monarquía Hispánica frente a la peste en el Mediterráneo moderno (INFOPLA). As part of the DisComPoSE project, he has focused on the circulation of news on disasters (16th-17th centuries) and is preparing a monograph on confidential news about earthquakes in the Hispanic Monarchy.