Berberization and its Modern Artifacts
References to ancient and prehistoric Berbers have been standard in the last two centuries, even if historians have long known that the name «Berbers» was of medieval Arabic origin. At the heart of this anachronism is the notion that the Berbers are the region’s indigenous inhabitants, an idea that has been critical to the development of the field of Berber studies. Drawing attention to the modern construction of Berbers, this article identifies some of the most salient features of this Berberization in view of eliciting research based on new historicizing grounds.
Parole chiave: Berberi; Nazionalismo; Razza; Etnogenesi.
Keywords: Berbers; Nationalism; Race; Ethnogenesis.
Between 1944 and 1945, the Italian Communist Party seems to abandon its internationalist, classist and revolutionary policy. In fact, the turning point of Salerno and the launch of the formulas of the «New Party» (partito nuovo) and the «Progressive Democracy» (democrazia progressiva) offer a new political line in order to achieve the political success and the massification of the party: a democratic, autonomous, and national political strategy. Since this moment, in the public discourse of the party seems prevailing a discursive use of the concept of «people» (popolo), which tends to flank or overcome, in many occasions, words, such as «class» or «proletariat», belonging to the Marxist tradition. This research aims at explaining the reasons and showing the modalities by which the Italian Communist Party, between 1943 and 1945, modulated, in the public discourse and with specific discursive strategies, an image of the «people» as a unified, national, and interclassist entity, within which, however, it is possible to notice, since 1945, the first linguistic and discursive signs of the future political change: the rupture of the unity of the anti-fascist front.
Parole chiave: Popolo; Partito comunista italiano; Storia semantica; Analisi del discorso politico.
Keywords: People; Italian Communist Party; Semantic History; Political Discourse Analysis.
This article surveys recent historiographical studies on social conflicts and radical left during the 1970s in Italy. The debate in last years suggested new topics, methodologies and interpretations, with particular emphasis being placed on the issue of political violence, but it is still polarized in two classical and often implicit representations: stagione dei movimenti («season of movements») and anni di piombo («years of lead»). On the one hand, some scholars have been underlining mass participation and the emergence of joyful movements aiming to social equity and individual emancipation. On the other, scholars have been emphasizing political violence, armed struggle and terrorism. Neverthless, the two representations are partial and misleading. The article attempts to suggest new investigative trails that might analyse the genesis and the transformation of the movements and opposition cultures in depth from a cultural and a social perspective, and take into account economic transformation, mass culture and the roll of political parties.
Parole chiave: Anni settanta; Movimenti sociali; Sinistra extraparlamentare; Violenza politica; Storiografia italiana.
Keywords: Seventies; Social movements; Radical left; Political violence; Italian historiography.
Starting from the conception of time in the field of cognitive neuroscience (duration, subjectivity, memory), this essay analyzes the way in which the sense and the perception of time are discussed by the most recent historiography. According to this analysis, it is necessary not only to compare the time of Western society with that of other cultures, and with the processes of globalization and de-globalization, but it is also necessary to re-discuss the conception of time in historians and open up to comparison with other disciplines. Human brain not only «creates» time, but also «manipulates» it, producing a feeling / illusion of simultaneity, and this opens up the question if it is appropriate to consider a new type of historical narration, capable of intercepting questions about themes that involve man with his cognitive abilities, emotions, consciousness, in the direction of a «neurohistory».
Parole chiave: Tempo; Neuroscienze; Narrazione storica; Neurostoria.
Keywords: Time; Cognitive neuroscience; Historical narrative; Neurohistory.
Ripensare il valimiento. Don Luis de Haro nella più recente storiografia
Giuseppe Mrozek Eliszezynski
This contribution draws on historiographical trends developed in recent years about the role of relics in the Christian world, with a focus on the Italian and European context. The study of cults, holiness, miracles and sacred objects from the Middle Ages to the present time raises important issues in the public space today, prompting us to reflect on the political use of history, and on the relationship between humanities and science. This essay examines the primary sources historians use in their investigations of modern miracles and relics, distinguishing between new evidence and the return to well-known documents with new questions.
Parole chiave: Miracoli; Scienza; Spazio pubblico; Reliquie; Santità; Magia; Devozione.
Keywords: Miracles; Science; Public Space; Relics; Sanctity; Magic; Devotion.
This article offers a reflection on changes and continuities in the biographical studies on the Reformer Martin Luther, after the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. How academicals researches confront the publishing logic of the multiplication of anniversary biographies, and the current memorialization of historical origins of the Reformation? A quick report of journalistic echoes of some religious friction related to celebrations in Italy and in Germany, and the review of five recent biographical essays (Silvana Nitti, Lutero; Lyndal Roper, Martin Luther. Renegade and Prophet; Adriano Prosperi, Lutero, gli anni della fede e della libertà; Volker Reinhardt, Lutero l’eretico. La Riforma protestante vista da Roma; Denis Crouzet, Charles Quint empereur d’une fin des temps), allow us to focus a significant tension in the actual understanding of the historical and cultural modernity of Luther as a chief reformer.
Parole chiave: Martin Lutero; Biografia; Cinquecentenario Riforma; Recensione.
Keywords: Martin Luther; Biography; 500th Anniversary of the Reformation; Review.