Placing itself within the complex relationship between emigration and colonization, that has always influenced the historiography of emigration in Africa, this contribution will try, firstly, to outline some fundamental lines of emigration from Southern Italy to the Mediterranean Africa between the two World Wars, focusing especially on the case of Tunisia, the closest, most frequented and since more remote times reached country. It will try, therefore, to highlight the main reasons that lead to the choice of this country compared to other African countries, the modalities of migration, the extent of migration especially from the South of Italy, the areas and types of settlement, the relations with the colonial authorities and with the Italian authorities. It will rapidly deal also with the strategies of «integration» and/or isolation put in place with respect to other immigrant communities and local populations. Starting from the different forms of settlement and coexistence recorded, attention will be given to the differences and similarities between several cases such as the Little Sicilies of Tunis and of the Goletta, the Capace grande and Capace Piccolo of Susah, the «oases of Italianness» of Libya, the Petite Naples and Chiffalo (Cefalù) in Algeria, the Little Venice, or Hart, of Cairo, the Maarif of Casablanca.
Keywords: Emigration; Colonisation; Fascism; Mediterranean Africa.