This article contributes to the debate on the conflict between peasant and commercial agriculture, focusing in particular on the growth of organic production in Italy and its ambiguous position between these two farming models. The article focuses on the regulation of seeds on the attempt of the organic sector to «appropriate» the peasant seeds, through their registration and privatization. Organic agriculture and the agroecological movement emerged, respectively in the 1970s, and 1980s, as a response to the processes of modernization of the rural areas and industrialization of agriculture, through the recovery of traditional knowledge and continuous innovation and dynamic management of biodiversity in the fields. Since then, organic agriculture has been growing to the point of competing in the conventional market; nonetheless, it has failed in re-thematizing the production model outside the industrial, commercial, and conventional agriculture. This failure has been exposing the organic sector to an increasing competitive pressure; moreover, in Italy this sector suffers the lack of an adequate production of organic seeds. The reaction of the Italian organic farming sector has been the attempt of a new enclosure on genetic resources feeding biodiversity, which are at the base of the peasant farming model. The case of the Senatore Cappelli wheat exemplifies the effects of such processes.
Keywords: Organic farming; seeds; Senatore Cappelli wheat; Agroecology.