The tradition of the rondeau is active throughout the history of medieval French literature, at least until Guillaume de Machaut, who elevates it to a “fixed form”, at the same time starting the process of its separation from music. The virelai, whose story is linked to the rondeau, also is canonised during the XIV century, with or without music. Charles d’Orléans represent a particularly challenging author for whoever wants to study the two literary genres. The autograph manuscript (Paris, BnF, fr. 25458) shows stratifications and, in some cases, inconsistencies in the identification of the two genres. The article examines the rondeaux and virelais by the Duke of Orléans in line with research carried out on autograph and idiograph manuscripts by Guillaume de Machaut and Christine de Pizan.