Effetti perversi e politiche migratorie: il caso degli sbarchi fantasma

Autori: Valentina Punzo, Attilio Scaglione
In: Meridiana. 99, 2020
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Although the number of migrant arrivals has significantly diminished since its peak between 2014 and 2016, according to the latest statistics from the International Organization for Migration and the UNHCR the Central Mediterranean Route, which refers to the sea journey from North Africa to Italy, remains to be the most deadly. This study analyzes the conclusive part of a migrant’s journey to Italy: the crossing of the Mediterranean. In particular, the text focuses on the phenomenon of «ghost» or «phantom» landings where small boats manage to evade detection by authorities. This type of arrival has been responsible for bringing the majority of the 7.926 people to the Italian shores in 2019. This study argues that the rise in so-called «phantom» boat arrivals represents an indirect consequence of the EU and Italian irregular migration policies to counter migrant smuggling. To investigate the characteristics of the ghost landings, the study takes into consideration the route that connects Tunisia to Sicily where, in recent years, the presence of criminal organizations already active in the smuggling of cigarettes has been detected.

Keywords: Migrant smuggling; Migration policies; Criminal organizations.