Francia 2015-19. Le narrazioni del malessere
The word «déclinisme» has been introduced in French dictionaries in 2016. The term refers to a pessimistic outlook of France present and future, which highlights its unavoidable decline also due to the historians and public school incapacity to transfer values and identity. The essay examines such a narration and its ideological, political, electoral exploitation, together with the opposite narration of Macron anti-identity argument during the election campaign and of Patrick Boucheron «World history of France» anti-nationalistic position. The gilets jaunes rebellion, put at the end of the analysis, marks the irruption of social conflict – or maybe class struggle return? – inside the République, and the desire of the inhabitants of a suburban, now strongly de-industrialized, France to be in the limelight. The petits moyen protest sweeps away Macron retorics – accused of hiding fiscal favour to the rich – and the déclinism’s identity obsessions, focusing on life conditions, mobility right, traditional forms of representation which are unable to guarantee the values of freedom, equality, fraternity solemny affirmed by the Constitutions since French Revolution: such an event is the fundamental historical reference of the «ronds points» occupiers, who exibit its symbols and passwords during Saturday demonstrations.
Keywords: France; Déclinisme; Identity; Social conflict.
A significant number of studies has already pointed out that Italian fascism had the strength and the economic resources to stay alive despite the epilogue of WWII. Nevertheless the majority of these studies tends to not use neither a comparative approach nor a transnational one. On the contrary this article aims to cast new light on Italian neo-fascism by taking into account the global geo-political scenario and, in particular, by observing what happened to neo-fascist movements and their leaders in the UK and in France in the immediate post-war period (from 1945 to 1951). The author is perfectly aware of the differences among these case-studies, nevertheless he argues that such disparate political contexts can help to better understand Italian neo-fascism, and to better value the most important patterns of it and its influence and relevance in Europe. Finally, this article demonstrates that, despite these different political contexts, European neo-fascism was characterised by numerous common aspects and by leaders able to re-built and renewed the previous international network collapsed because of the war, thanks to the weak and ambiguous attitude of the European democracies.
Keywords: Neo-fascism; Msi; Transnational history; Comparative history.
It is time to reflect on the evolution of Greek history in the five decades that separate us from a famous article by A. Momigliano, Prospettiva 1967 della storia greca. The revision of the Greek archaic colonization, the discussion of the statute of ancient historiography, the notion of «intentional» history can in fact be considered manifestations or extensions of a pervasive paradigm, that of memory as a constructive process. According to this paradgm, invention (which has always been part of game rules of history, and a component, risky as much as virtuous, of the research method) takes the place of the object of research. We no longer study the past, but the invention, or inventions, of the past. An attempt has been made, quite simply, to demolish ancient historical literature, that is, secondary sources on early Greece, from the origins of Greek civilization to the 6th and 5th centuries BC. On the one hand, in doing so, entire sectors of ancient history have been eliminated, with a special focus on the incubation period of the Greek poleis; on the other hand, one of the columns supporting the knowledge of the past has been swept away, putting Herodotus and also Thucydides on a different shelf of the library – that of literature.
Keywords: Ancient historiography: Intentional history; Invention; Memory.
Brevi considerazioni di un archeologo
This paper focuses on the relationship between the historical and archaeological research, on the established methods and available set of sources, as well as on the main cultural trends developed in the archeological debate over the last few decades. Taking the cue from the enliven discussion over the Greek «colonization» of the West, and by referring to the different interpretations of other complex phenomena of the ancient world – such as the «Romanization» and the end of Antiquity – several other issues are also addressed, in particular concerning the last 50 years evolutions in the archaeological research. From the debate between the New Archeology, and the Processual and Post-processual archaeologies, to the emergence of medieval, modern, and contemporary post-classic archaeologies; from the Italian tradition of the historic archaeology to the development of the «global archeology», the so-called «archeologia della complessità», and the «global landscape archaeology». In this respect, the need for a contextual, stratigraphic, and multidisciplinary approach for the analysis of historic landscapes is particularly emphasized. Finally, issues concerning the «public archeology» are also tackled.
Keywords: Archeological research; Ancient historiography; Historic landscapes; Public archeology.