Meridiana. 102. Solidarietà e lavoro

Testata: Meridiana • Anno di pubblicazione: 2021
Edizione cartacea
pp. 218, ISBN: 9788833139807
€ 30,00
Aggiungi al carrello Aggiungi al carrello € 30,00
Wishlist Wishlist Wishlist
Edizione digitale
PDF • 9788833139814
€ 17.99
Acquista Acquista Acquista

Obbiettivo di questo fascicolo di Meridiana è ribaltare il tradizionale percorso di riflessione promosso dagli studi sulle mobilitazioni dei lavoratori in ambito storico-sociale, il cui focus è stato spesso costituito da una interpretazione della lotta quale elemento accentratore delle pratiche di solidarietà. Nel nostro caso invece si è deciso di esplorare il tema della solidarietà del lavoro in contesti trasformativi, portando al centro dell’analisi non la lotta ma le relazioni interpersonali e le reti sociali che fanno da ponte tra gruppi di lavoratori altrimenti separati, culturalmente distinti o geograficamente distanti, ma anche tra quei lavoratori poco «inclini» al conflitto manifesto o professionalmente isolati.
Il tema attorno al quale abbiamo scelto di inquadrare le questioni del lavoro riguarda la solidarietà, intesa quindi come disposizione a creare legami di supporto reciproco e pratiche di collaborazione. La solidarietà a lavoro dialoga costantemente con il tema delle mobilitazioni che abbiamo preferito declinare come «movimenti» per cogliere allo stesso tempo i mutamenti del lavoro, ovvero le sue trasformazioni in termini di organizzazione, condizioni e relazioni e le eventuali mobilitazioni che ne conseguono, coinvolgendo i lavoratori e le società nelle quali il lavoro viene caricato di senso.
I saggi raccolti in questo numero esplorano in primo luogo le ragioni e i fattori materiali e culturali che favoriscono o ostacolano l’unione dei lavoratori in contesti di mutamento: chi stabilisce relazioni solidali e per quali ragioni? Le solidarietà a lavoro sono state colte tra le maglie delle trasformazioni del lavoro, a dimostrazione del fatto che esse si concretizzano simultaneamente ai processi trasformativi e non a posteriori come risultato di un evento esclusivo o fatto improvviso quale può essere lo sciopero. Il tema della solidarietà, a sua volta, è servito a interrogare il contenuto e la funzione del secondo significato del concetto di movimenti, ovvero la capacità di azione dei lavoratori.
La strada che abbiamo seguito per un’analisi sistematica della connessione tra i movimenti e le solidarietà del lavoro parte dalla constatazione che le relazioni solidali tra i lavoratori non possono essere dedotte a priori ma solo osservate empiricamente e ricostruite contestualmente, dal momento che gli attori interessati appartengono a gruppi sociali elastici e mutevoli. Intrecciando questi tre temi chiave – i movimenti, le solidarietà e il lavoro – questo numero di «Meridiana» vuole contribuire alla conoscenza scientifica sulle trasformazioni del lavoro, estendere gli scopi empirici e concettuali della letteratura esistente sulle mobilitazioni e alimentare il dibattito sociale sulla possibilità di fare rete. A tal fine, si sono scelti alcuni casi studio portati avanti negli ultimi anni sia in Italia che fuori da questa, comparando quindi i risultati di ricerche sui lavoratori della Fiat a Melfi così come sugli operai che occuparono ed autogestirono le fabbriche in Argentina ed in Francia; il lavoro volontario dei richiedenti asilo in Italia e la riappropriazione di spazi e pratiche rurali in Val Susa come conseguenza ai movimenti No Tav.

Introduzione. Movimenti e solidarietà del lavoro
Elena Dinubila, Marco Moschetti

Introduction. Mobilizations and Labour Solidarity

Studying solidarity at work through the interpersonal networks of workers allows us to grasp new forms of collaboration and resistance going beyond the more traditional collective mobilisations. This introductory essay suggests to overcome the dichotomies linked to the traditional class division based on the capital/labour opposition, and to the radical separation between opportunistic and altruistic behaviours. To this end, the authors support the thesis of an expanded working class, composed of heterogeneous social groups, which are driven by different interests and ambitions but share a sense of precariousness and social marginality. Furthermore, this introduction underlines the common purpose of the solidarity practices analysed in the articles collected in this issue, which is to challenge the economic rationalisation of production and to give new meaning to work.

Keywords: Work; Solidarity; Mobilisations; Social marginality


Solidarietà messe al lavoro? Il «volontariato dell’asilo» e le frontiere del lavoro gratuito
Simone Di Cecco

This article presents an ethnographic study of volunteering of asylum seekers in Italy. The volunteering of asylum develops in a close relation with the Third Sector and reception system’s practices of gratuitousness and discourses of solidarity. Volunteering by asylum seekers presents some important features, related to the methods of recruitment and the competition that support it. Although these mechanisms are powerful, participation in volunteering remains fragile, and forms of collective solidarity and resistance can thus arise against this form of free work.

Keywords: Asylum Seekers; Free Labour; Solidarity; Third Sector


Collaborare, intraprendere, sperimentare. Coltivatori e associazioni rurali in Val di Susa
Davide Cacchioni

This text analyses the dynamics of some rural organisations, mainly observed in the Susa Valley between October and December 2015. In this context, the move towards agriculture for some is imbricated with the local mobilisation against the construction of a high-speed railway line, that is the No TAV movement. Rural organisations emerge as spaces in which to experiment a collaborative approach to agriculture, developing cultivation projects and small-scale processing. They employ certain economic-cultural strategies to open up production possibilities that involve a relationship with the economic past. These kinds of experiences help social sciences in addressing the complexity of economic alternatives.

Keywords: Susa Valley; Rural Organisations; Collaboration; No TAV Movement


Solidarietà e lavoro nelle rappresentazioni mediatiche delle fabbriche autogestite in Argentina
Vanesa Coscia

This essay aims to identify what is highlighted in the representations of the processes of recovery of the factories in Argentina, after the crisis of 2001 and how the social meanings about the concepts of solidarity and labour were emphasized by the mass media discourses. The proposal is to explore how these meanings were represented by the various selected registers such as the national press and audiovisual productions (documentaries, fictions). The methodological approach focuses on the emphases and social imaginaries about this process. This essay invites reflection how a «hegemony of the speakable and the thinkable» takes shape at each historical moment, from a critically perspective.

Keywords: Representations; Media, Recovery Factories; Argentina


La solidarietà operaia messa alla prova dall’individualizzazione del lavoro. Il caso della fabbrica Fralib
Florent Berlioux

From 2010 to 2014, Fralib tea processing factory, near Marseille in France, was the arena of an important worker’s struggle. The employees are engaged in a fight against a food multinational company to prevent the relocation of the factory. They reclaim the machines to build a cooperative carrying social and environmental values. This struggle leads to reconsider the workshop relationships under neoliberal labour process. This article shows how individualistic and resistant behaviours go together on the line and that the ideal of «solidarity» advocated by Fralib workers during the struggle is built upon the overcoming of the internal oppositions built by the management since late 80’s.

Keywords: Recovering Factory; Unionisme; Individualiazation; Solidarity


Relazioni mutevoli e azioni multiple. Una disamina delle reti solidali tra i lavoratori Fca-Sata
Elena Dinubila

This paper describes the changing relationships between FCA-Sata workers and its implications on worker solidarity construction. Although plant restructuring has fragmented work and hampered social interactions between workers, new forms of complicity and collaboration based on a sense of solidarity arise from reconfigured work practices. These solidarity relationships emerge in the space of the workshop, involving various occupational profiles, but also in the interstitial spaces of work, such as in the buses that take the workers to the factory. Finally, this article will explore the field of action of FCA-Sata workers and the related phenomena of opposition and adaptation to the factory system.

Keywords: FCA-Sata; Integrated Factory; Solidarity; Commuting


Pubblica amministrazione, ceti medi e divari di cittadinanza nel Mezzogiorno
Paola De Vivo, Antonio Russo

The article has two objectives. First of all, the article outlines the structural changes that have reconfigured the features of the public administration in the last decades in Italy and in the South in particular, and the related effects on the middle class. Second, it analyses the impact of these transformations on the citizenship gaps in Italy, between North and South. Overall, the reforms of the public administration, and the contextual cuts in employment and public spending, have increased the social vulnerability of the middle classes, leading to a decisive decline in status, especially in the South of Italy.

Keywords: Public Administration; Middle Class; Citizenship Gaps; South of Italy


Coerenza tra le pratiche di pianificazione e il capitale territoriale nelle strategie di sviluppo turistico per le aree interne italiane
Daniele Mantegazzi, Maria Giulia Pezzi, Gabriella Punziano

The structural development policies of the last decade see the fundamental opposition between spatially-blind strategies and place-based interventions. This article aims at contributing to the current debate on this topic by analyzing the results of decision-making processes related to the implementation of the National Strategy for Inner Areas (SNAI) considering a specific planning sector: tourism. In particular, the discursive and narrative practices emerging in the planning documents of tourism strategies have been analyzed to identify the elements of coherence between the planning practices – based on the knowledge of the territorial capital – and the actual territorial capital.

Keywords: Place-based development; Spatially-blind approach; Narrative policy analysis; Italian National Strategy for Inner Areas


La deistituzionalizzazione nel Mezzogiorno. Lotte antistituzionali e rinnovamento psichiatrico a Palermo e Reggio Calabria tra anni sessanta e settanta
Manoela Patti

The article explores the history of the process of deinstitutionalization in Palermo and Reggio Calabria in the context of the critical psychiatric movements in Italy (1960-78). It is consolidated the idea of a Southern Italy unconnected with the «psychiatric question» and anti-institutional practices, in Italy due mainly to Franco Basaglia and his team. The essay focuses on this issue in the South of Italy where, as well as in the other experiences, the actions were both political and scientific. The analysis considers also the connections of Palermo and Reggio Calabria movements, in particular with Democratic Psychiatry, and looks at the role played by social movements and political forces.

Keywords: Critical Psychiatric Movement; Deinstitutionalization; Democratic Psychiatry Movement; Southern Italy


Il genitore riluttante: le molte ragioni della denatalità in Italia
Manuela Olagnero

In his recent volume Giuseppe Micheli takes up the theme of the decreased birth rate in Italy, placing it against the backdrop of economic and social changes in Italy since the 1970s. He argues that rational choice theory is inadequate for delving into the complexities of giving up parenthood by the younger and adult generations. Intertwining micro and macro views, historical and analytical axes, the author focuses on the moods of crisis as the key element that traps the decision to procreate in uncertainty and distrust. Gender- and family-friendly policies, necessary as they are, are not enough to counteract the deep-rooted mood of helplessness; it is up to institutions and individuals to engage in rebuilding moral resources, shaping new social practices and collective moods.

Keywords: Family; Generation; Birth Rate; Fertility