Resistance, Anti-Fascism and Civil War.
A Debate Between History and Politics
The essay reflects on the debate following the publication in 1991 of the book A Civil War written by Claudio Pavone. The definition of Resistance as a civil war, made unusable the public rhetoric built from 1945 onwards, marking the end of the anti-fascist paradigm as a source of legitimacy of the party system born the day after of the end of World War II. Hence, the concern of some authoritative scholars of a possible delegitimization of the Republic of the parties, in the case of recognition of a «civil» nature of the clash 43-45. Actually the rethinking of the 43-45 biennium in terms of a civil war, helps to better understand its dimension as a period of refounding of the political and social order, giving us the novelty of the anti-fascist political proposal. Which, in the context of «international civil war» began in 1914 and destined to end in 1945, is presented as being a different kind of answer to the problems of mobilization of the masses and of the public organization of economic life, combining social rights and political freedom, in clear and sharp alternative to fascist experience, tending to solve the same lump of problems through the creation of a totalitarian State and subverter of the world peace.