The End of Revolution. The Making of History
in the Italian Social Movements of the 70s
This article focuses on the Italian social movements of the 70s in order to grasp a crucial transformation in the conception as well as in the way of living the making of History. This transformation consists in the crisis of the 20th-century idea of «Revolution» like horizon of expectation. The author points out three major factors contributing to such a transformation. First, the change in the conception of «working class», which is observed in the various components of the Operaism. Second, the rise of the Feminist principle «the personal is political» far beyond the Feminism movement. Third, the criticism and new articulation of the equivalence between power and government bodies. As the author underlines, this transformation is far from being linear. This is what he shows by analysing the controversial status of the Political violence with reference to the riots and their political interpretations in this horizon characterised by the disappearance of the 20th-century idea of «Revolution». Finally, the author examines the contemporary debates occasioned by the most important political pop festival of the decade – the «Parco Lambro (Milano), 1976 – and the contradictions that this event brought to light.