«Con l’armi nuove della politica».
The Bourbon Exile and Its Conspiracy Strategies
The Bourbon exile after 1860 is different from the democratic and liberal exile before the Italian unification: this one is in fact an «hierarchical» exile, with the presence of a government in Rome, with the presence of the king Francesco II, with a diplomatic system. Between 1860 and 1866 these elements organized armed expedition against the former kingdom, but these initiatives joined political strategies of modernization, through the promise of the Constitution to the Reign, through the promise of construction of infrastructure, through the Neapolitan Nation building based on propaganda. Sicily was also a strategic platform in view of the restoration of the rightful king: the island was filled with clubs who worked hard to build a network of Mediterranean legitimists. The 1866 war and the revolt of Palermo closed this political phase, but many of these issues converged in the complex Southern Question.