Da area a città metropolitana: una possibile rinascita per l’Italia?
Gabriella Corona e Antonio di Gennaro
From Urban Area to Metropolitan Authority:
A Possible Renaissance for italy
The authors introduce the essays included in this issue of «Meridiana» whose aim is to give a contribution to the collective reflexion about the «Delrio law» approved in April 2014 which has instituted fourteen Metropolitan Authorities in Italy. The articles describe the transformations which have interested four important metropolitan areas – Milano, Firenze, Roma and Napoli – during the last three decades and their social and environmental implications. They also define the interventions that the new institution must realise. In spite of the limits of the «Delrio law» the Metropolitan Authorities could yet represent a national political project direct to overtake those divisions and conflicts between different parts of Italy beginning from local level. For reaching this result it’s important to give a democratic character to the government of Metropolitan Authorities and promote a larger city’s bottom up policies..
Keywords: urban transformations, Italian renaissance, urban areas, unification local governments
Cambiamenti in atto nelle città metropolitane del nostro Paese
Silvio Casucci e Alessandro Leon
Urban Transformation in the Largest Italian Metropolitan Areas
The article is focus on the urban transformation of the 10 largest metropolitan areas in Italy in the last 10 years, based on the 2011 data Census processed by Istat, the Italian National Institute of Statistics. A comprehensive statistical data analysis is provided and benchmarks are proposed between the city centers and the surroundings in terms of the evolution of the population, the households, the social distress, and the employment. The main result is that the social and physical transformations were huge: the population increased for the first time after 20 years stagnation mainly caused by the legal and illegal immigration, the number of households increased either for the numerous one man/one family immigrated people, or for the evolutionary social change of the Italian family institution, the increase in the number of houses located far away the city centers with poor transportation facilities, lack of local public and private services. The lack of public finance caused by the European Treaty gave rise to a pro-market local policy approaches that failed to coordinate houses locations, jobs, and public and private services, with huge indirect and external social costs in term of mobility excesses, pollution, and social distress.
Keywords: Urban economics, population and households, urban metropolitan area
Milano città metropolitana fra deregolazione e nuova progettualità
Maria Cristina Gibelli
Milan Metropolitan Government Between
Deregulation and Renewed Strategies
For two decades the urban region of Milan has been losing ground in the European urban hierarchy. How could the new metropolitan government about to be established re-interpret the recently approved national law (no. 56/2014), though inadequate and potentially harmful, in a desirable way? In order to answer this question the paper is organized in two main parts. The first part highlights the present weaknesses of the Milanese urban region: in particular its steady loss of competitiveness, mainly due to deregulation of planning and privatization of urban policies. Consequently, the Milan area has been unable to counter the assaults of real estate speculation and of mafia infiltration, and it has been burdened by worsening environmental quality and livability. The second part puts forward some critical remarks on Law 56/2014, especially in comparison with other European contexts. In particular, the new law on metropolitan governments recently enacted in France is analyzed. An exercise is proposed concerning the issues, the challenges, and the tools that the Milanese Statute could take into consideration in a desirable scenario. The conclusions are not optimistic, given the weak commitment manifested by the mayor of Milan and the ‘business as usual’ approach privileged in the recently adopted municipal master plan.
Keywords: Milan metropolitan government, metro governments in Europe, deregulation in planning metropolitan statute
Florence Metropolitan Area Looking for a Remedy
to the Chaotic Urban Growth
The metropolitan area of Florence is, nowadays, at a turning point. The economic crisis makes less tolerable the negative aspects of the governance model and the demand for a radical change of territorial policies is increasing day by day. However, the debate about the new government level established by law (metropolitan city) is not focused on a wide-ranging proposals overall the whole metropolitan area, as it was twenty years ago. In 1990 the Region Tuscany approved - for the first and only time - a comprehensive program for the metropolitan area (Structural scheme Florence -Prato-Pistoia). The schema was based on a wide comprehensive strategy. It focused the attention on the re-organization and rehabilitation of urban areas, containing the chaotic urban growth. Its implementation was mainly based on the cooperation between the Region and local municipalities. To better understand the issues and challenges we are facing now, it is useful to recall the critical aspects of the plan and the limits of its implementation model, during the following years.
Keywords: Urban planning, governance, metropolitan area, Florence, Tuscany
Roma, una città metropolitana in crescita e trasformazione
Carlo Carminucci, Silvio Casucci e Georg Frisch
Rome, a Growing Metropolitan City in Transformation
Rome is the Italian urban metropolitan area which has undergone in the last ten/ fifteen years the most profound changes both in terms of economic and social development and in terms of urban planning and mobility. This article aims to contribute to the recent debate on the city of Rome, through an objective analysis on the positive and negative changes that have marked the city’s recent history. We want to support the thesis that the institution of the metropolitan city of Rome risks arriving ten/fifteen years late. The profound changes ongoing in the city would undoubtedly have required an effective territorial government and a vast area leadership capability, which has proven to be inadequate. The absence of such a capability has, inevitably, brought about strong imbalances and significant new problems which cannot be easily fixed in the near future.
Keywords: Rome, urban economics, urban metropolitan area, urban mobility
Per una storia dell’ecosistema metropolitano di Napoli
Antonio di Gennaro
For a History of the Metropolitan Ecosystem of Naples
Antonio di Gennaro outlines the history of metropolitan area of Naples from an ecosystem point of view. During the sixties years it presented yet an ancient configuration regarding the relationship between rural and urban spaces. During last five decades the area has had a radical transformation from a polycentric system to a metropolitan conurbation. It was a change which has produced three serious effects: soils destruction, urban area expansion and occupation of areas with high environmental sensibility.
Keywords: Ecosystem, metropolitan area of Naples, consuption of soil, green belt
The Metropolitan Authority of Neaples.
It Could Have Been an Opportunity of Redemption
Statistical data demonstrate that the quality of life within the metropolitan area of Naples is in a terrible condition and it has gone worst in the last decades. 2. The article focuses on the situation of the coastline of the Vesuvius, where in many municipalities buildings have consumed the available space; a situation that is alarming in consideration of the volcanic risk of the Vesuvius itself. 3. Congestion, overcrowding and administrative fragmentation would require a forward-looking and effective instruments of land use planning, that should be based on a large scale dimension. 4. A satisfactory legal discipline was introduced by the law n. 142 of 1990 that provided for metropolitan authorities with functions appropriate to the problems. 5. On the contrary the recently approved reform of the metropolitan authorities (law 7 April 2014, n. 56) seems to be completely inadequate. 6. The article propose then the subject of the protection and the promotion of cultural heritage as keystone of every perspective of rebirth. 7. In the conclusion, the article underlines a positive note, that is the progress in the construction of the metro of Naples (Scampia is now reachable from the main station in half hour).
Keywords: Metropolitan authorities, Neaples, cultural heritage, quality of life
Metropolitan Government and Planning Policies:
The Case of Barcellona
The metropolitan region of Barcelona is one of the functional ambits which have been defined by the General Territorial Plan of Catalunya and it covers 10% of the whole Catalan territory. The approval of the correspondent plan (PTMB) has been a very meaningful moment towards the evolution of the metropolitan territory, by marking the starting point of a new phase, in which territorial balance proposals have become a permanent point of reference for the evaluation of transformation processes within the entire region. PTMB has introduced an innovative methodology which bases on a precise process of inter-territorial participation and sharing, outcome of a marked peculiarity of the territory. The relevant elements for the analysis of the used method are three: the facilities system, open spaces network and growth dynamics of rural areas. This has outlined a strategy which is innovative in comparison to the regional environment, the latter has indeed become a second-level one with reference to the method. The critical analysis of the challenges described by the text must also represent a fervid field of work in the new today’s political and economic situation in our Country with reference both to the redefinition processes of the organizational and administrative forms of the territories with infra-regional scale (the Provinces), and to system of processing of vast area in function of the utility of scale of reference (Provincial or Regional one) and how the latter can provide a contribution for the functional reorganization of the territories.
Keywords: Urban region, metropolitan sprawl, government, system of cities
Institutional outlines of the discussion about metropolitan authority
The article examines the institutional profiles of the debate concerning metropolitan authority, starting from the analysis of some relevant European experiences. The example of London shows the performance of a model which is based on the direct election and on the attribution of the most relevant functions to the mayor within a framework connoted by a strict control of the assembly and the citizens. The cases of Barcelona and Paris, which don’t allow the direct election to the organs, show the importance of a construction of the model from the bottom and the utility of a process in which associations, citizens and preexisting local bodies participate. In Italy, the process passed through several never-effected laws now finds a first realization achievement with the «Delrio law», which establishes the constitution starting on 1 January 2015 of a metropolitan authority for each the main urban area of the State. The selected model doesn’t admit direct election to the organs and fixes number, size and functions of the metropolitan authorities according to a uniform pattern imposed on every affected community. In this way, it combines the faults of a choice from the top with the ones of a non-representative system. The hope is that the process already began can obtain more successful and more democratic results in the future, borrowing the best from the experiences of other countries.
Keywords: metropolitan authority, election, functions, institutional models
Dentro la città. Forum con Luciano Brancaccio, Nick Dines, Jason Pine e Marcello Ravveduto
Luciano Brancaccio, Nick Dines, Jason Pine e Marcello Ravveduto
Inside the City
Drawing on over ten years of ethnographic research on the neomelodica music scene in Campania, The Art of Making Do in Naples (University of Minnesota Press 2012) offers several empirical, theoretical and methodological points of interest for scholars working in a range of social science disciplines. For this reason, Meridiana hosted a forum on the book comprised of scholars from variety of backgrounds (history, sociology and anthropology). Pine’s work is the first to explore, through in depth long-term field research, the social spaces where formal, informal and illicit economic activities overlap. In their discussion, the participants of the forum engaged a number of issues relevant to readers of Meridiana, including: Pine’s concept of the «contact zone,» stereotypical representations of the neomelodica scene and of Neapolitan popular classes more generally, the power and form of camorra networks, the fraught relationship between researcher and the field, and the spaces of indeterminacy that comprise the topography of social research. Pine’s book and, in part, the forum discussion, argue for the need to question the interpretive and ethical certainties of «common sense» and/or theory, treat the field instead as a space of immanent knowledge to be considered situationally and concretely.
Keywords: Neomelodica music scene, popular classes, organized crime, contact zone
La Terra dei fuochi. Un problema di rappresentanza?
The «Terra dei fuochi».
A Rappresentative Question?
The experience of the «Terra dei fuochi» movements as a possible answer to the question: who and how takes the unpopular decisions about landfills, incinerators, industrial plants that treat waste. The analysis starts, not surprisingly, by the book Breaking the impasse: consensual approaches to resoliving public disputes (Basic books, 1987) written by Jeffrey Cruiksshank and Lawrence Susskind. In the Land of fires, where an «ecomafia» responsible for illegal dumping that has caused a rise in cancer rates, a central role is played by Father Maurizio Patriciello. He is a charismatic leader, who recalls the figure of Erin Brockovich in the Steven Soderbergh’s movie. Hinkley, California, where the movie is set, as Caivano, South Italy, where Patriciello lives. He leads the protest using tradition and modernity, the parish, where he meets his people, and social networks. In this mix of old and new is the secret of his success. The first waste crisis in Naples was in 1994. After twenty years of environmental emergency, only now here there are the first measures against the toxic waste.
Keywords: Terra dei fuochi, local community, toxic waste, ecomafia