Sanctorum. 10, 2013. Santità e sacralità

Testata: Sanctorum • Anno di pubblicazione: 2014
Edizione cartacea
pp. 304, ISBN: 9788867283897
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Introduzione
Sofia Boesch Gajano


Devoción a los santos y sacralización en el mundo urbano medieval, a través de las fuentes. El ejemplo de Lleida
Francisco Fité Llevot

Devoción a los santos y sacralización en el mundo urbano medieval, a través de las fuentes. El ejemplo de Lleida
This work deals with the study of devotion to the Saints in an urban environment, the city of Lleida (Catalunya), based on its historical reality. The first section provides the little known and preserved until the Islamic invasion of the ancient Ilerda. Since its bishopric was not reinstated, but was attached to Roda de Isábena (Huesca), in the second section we discusse the cult of the Saints in this diocese, on the assumption that after the conquest of the city, this cult was moved to Lleida and the cathedral adopted the liturgical calendar. To prove it we publish a calendar of Roda and two other of the liturgical books from Lleida Cathedral for comparing. The last part is devoted to show the hagiographic development during the late Middle Ages of dedications, devotions and foundations in churches, chapels and altars of the cathedral, and showing the introduction of new devotions as well as new liturgical practices, based also on documentary information, in this case the obituaries.


Saints anciens et saints récents dans les cultes et sanctuaires français de la seconde moitié du Moyen Âge
Catherine Vincent

Saints anciens et saints récents dans les cultes et sanctuaires français de la seconde moitié du Moyen Âge
Il saggio si articola in una molteplicità di temi fra loro interconnessi. Il primo è quello dell’infittirsi della rete dei luoghi di culto nel corso del secondo Medioevo: si tratta di luoghi di culto di dimensioni diverse, con funzioni diversificate, da santuari molto piccoli, con un modesto irradiamento, spesso con vita breve, oppure santuari a dimensione regionale, meta di pellegrinaggi a più lunga distanza, caratterizzati da una gestione ecclesiastica che favorisce il culto di santi particolari, quali i santi pellegrini Alessio e Rocco, e da peculiari forme di devozione. Il secondo tema è quello della tipologia della santità: si conferma la persistenza del culto per i santi antichi, soprattutto martiri e uno sporadico inserimento dei nuovi santi. Il terzo tema oggetto di analisi è la produzione agiografica: varietà delle forme letterarie, vite, raccolte di miracoli, traslazioni, preghiere, pièces teatrali, progressiva introduzione della lingua vernacolare, prima in versi e poi in prosa, che testimonia un intento comunicativo ai fini di una fruizione più diffusa di una produzione destinata a plaire et édifier.


La peste, il commercio internazionale e il culto di san Rocco a Lubecca. Proposte di metodo e prospettive di ricerca
Heinrich Dormeier

La peste, il commercio internazionale e il culto di san Rocco a Lubecca. Proposte di metodo e prospettive di ricerca
Der Beitrag versucht exemplarisch am Beispiel des Rochuskultes in Lübeck neue Methoden und Perspektiven der Erforschung der “Santità” in Deutschland aufzuzeigen. Gemäß den Hinweisen in den Missalien, den lateinischen und volkssprachlichen Gebetsbüchern und in den Frühdrucken der Heiligenlegenden (Passionalia) hat die Verehrung des Pestheiligen Rochus um 1490, also etwas später als in Nürnberg, Köln oder Flandern, Fuß gefasst. 1510-1511 wurde im Lübecker Dom eine eigene Rochusbruderschaft gegründet – eine in Deutschland einzigartige Aufwertung des neuen Heiligen. Gemeinsam mit der Darstellung des Heiligen und weiterer Pestpatrone auf dem neuen Lettner (tramezzo) der Marienkirche stellt die Neugründung dieser Bruderschaft einen qualtitativ neuen und ungewöhnlichen Schritt in der Verehrung dieses Heiligen dar. Zwar haben sich die Statuten und Mitgliedsverzeichnisse der Rochusbruderschaft nicht erhalten, aber vor allem auf der Grundlage von Hunderten ungedruckter Testamente gelingt es, für die zwei Jahrzehnte des Bruderschaftslebens die erstaunliche Zahl von über 40 Mitgliedern zu identifizieren. Wie in Nürnberg und in Flandern waren es auch in Lübeck, der Metropole der Hanse, nicht etwa die Amtskirche oder die großen Orden, sondern die Fernhandelskaufleute, die den Pestpatron Rochus zu einem der meistverehrten Heiligen vor der Reformation machten.


//Hagiographica Septentrionalia//: Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea Area
Christian Krötzl

Hagiographica Septentrionalia: Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea Area
Within the general development of the cult of saints the North of Europe is a very interesting region, and in many ways far less marginal than it might appear. Hagiographical research on the European North is, however, still very fragmented and scattered. In recent years there has been a renewed interest by younger researchers in the North, both for Scandinavian and Baltic sainthood, as well as for hagiographic topics not directly linked to the region. The cult of saints was introduced to Northern Europe together with the Christianisation, which proceeded in a long process from the 9th to the 14th Century and even later in the very north, in Lapland. There were major differences in the character of the Christianisation process, from mostly peaceful methods in Scandinavia to violent sword-mission in the Baltic, which affected also the cult of saints. This long process of Christianisation meant also that different layers of saint’s cults were imported and created. In contrast to “older” hagiographic regions, Scandinavia remained a rather active hagiographic region also after the Christianisation, up till the end of the Middle Ages, with female saints as a very interesting group too. Scandinavia played also an important and far from marginal role in the establishment and consolidation of the papal prerogative in canonization matters. Up till the Reformation there are no signs for a weakening in popular support for all aspects of the cult of saints. On the eastern shores of the Baltic sea, however, the sword-mission methods of Christianisation led during generations to active and passive resistance which explains also, at least partially, the absence or tiny amount of the indigenous element in local sources on Sainthood and Pilgrimages. The picture changed however towards the end of the Middle Ages also in the Baltic area.


Fonti e ricerche per la storia della santità in Portogallo nel Seicento
Zulmira Santos

Fonti e ricerche per la storia della santità in Portogallo nel Seicento
This study aims to present an overview of a set of sources to the holiness in Portugal, in the 17th Century, paying particular attention to the printed production over the century – religious chronicles, biographies, devout lives, collections of «saints»’ lives, «martyrologies» – in order to disclose the Portuguese hagiographic overview of that time, taking into account the period of dual monarchy between 1580 and 1640, using the most recent literature on this issue. The author seeks to show that the “hagiographic literature” produced in Portugal and its overseas territories, especially in the 17th Century, reflects not only the identity effort of the religious orders in the building of an «internal» holiness, but also, in the case of other texts, concerns of territorial and cultural order, valuing the construction of a Portuguese sacred space.


The Cult of the Saints in Recent Historiographies of Central Europe
Gábor Klaniczay

The Cult of the Saints in Recent Historiographies of Central Europe
This article presents recent research on the cult of the saints in three dimensions. First it examines, how the political climate of the post-Communist decades, and the millennial commemorations brought unexpectedly the cult of medieval “national” saints into the center of public attention, state financing and political debates in Central Europe. Second, I provide an overview of the doubtless scholarly benefit from the state investments to these anniversaries, and review the scholarly results of these new publications. Finally, I introduce those new academic institutions – universities, research centers, specialized associations, projects – which have been supporting these new research ventures on saints and their hagiographies.


Lo spazio della santità russa: un approccio storiografico
Maria Pliukhanova

Lo spazio della santità russa: un approccio storiografico
We consider the possibility of applying the concept of “sanctuary”, which is missing in Russian, to Russian hagiographic studies. The space of Russian holiness is unstable; its features are largely due to the fact that Christianity reached Russia relatively late and developed in isolation from the sacred centres, and also, in particularly, to the catastrophic nature of Russian history. First sanctuaries of Kievan Rus’ were destroyed during the Mongol invasion. Later on, the physical world of sanctity and of relics was destroyed over and over again in the course of history. The legends about the main exponents of holiness – miraculous icons – include, crucially, the motifs of movement and escape.