Counterrevolutionary Wars in Spain:
1793-1840. From International Conflict to Civil War
The French Revolution laid the European monarchies in front of a new challenge: coping with a people’s army. In response, the Spanish monarchy generated a widespread mobilization that backed onto a precise idea of monarchist counterrevolutionary patriotism. This same mobilizing argument was successfully recovered in 1808 to fight against the French invasion. In the Courts of Cadiz, meanwhile, a new formula of patriotism had crystallized, liberal patriotism, that questioned the directed absolute sovereignty and proclaimed, at the same time, the rights of citizens. From the distance between these projects, the germ of a civil war will be born that had a first episode in 1822-1823 and exploded in a large scale with the first Carlist War of 1833-1849. In Spain, the counterrevolutionary fight was kept alive for forty years, but the one that was initially an international war against the French revolutionaries, had come to turn into a civil war against the Spanish liberals.
Keywords: Legitimacy crisis, Bourbon patriotism, civil war, political traditions