The process of International Economic Interdependence: its Rise and Fall amid Keynesianism and monetarism
This study tracks the process of international economic interdependence since the origins of the post WWII international economic order to the beginnings of the 1980s as the changing ratio of transnational capital ows to domestic aggregate demand. Through the two-fold perspective of U.S. foreign economic policy and the Bretton Woods institutions assistance programs, and the shift from Keynesianism to monetarism typical of Post WWII economic theory, this contribution investigates the ways in which demand-management economic policies made way for strict monetary policies based on the idea that private capital markets could nance growth. After reviewing the concept of interdependence in the economic literature from the end of WWII through the 1960s, we focus attention on the U.S. Federal Reserve, the IMF and the World Bank to suggest the persistence of demand management policies through the 1970s. As orthodox monetary targets replaced demand side-oriented policies at the turn of the decade, this work points to a striking discrepancy between an early turn to monetarism in the economic thought and the late rise of neoliberal economic policies.
Parole chiave: Politica economica estera americana: ventesimo secolo; Mercato dei capitali; Storia dei consumi; Storia del pensiero e delle teorie economiche
Keywords: U.S. Foreign economic Policy-history-twentieth century; Capital markets: history; History of consumption; Economic thought and theory-history
Times of change. Structures of power in the countryside of northern and central Italy around 1100.
Studies about seigneurial power in Italian countryside have traditionally focused on long-term developments.This article draws attention to the years around 1100 in the countryside of northern and central Italy as a phase of strong acceleration in the process of intensi cation and crystallization of local power structures which had been inchoate before. This acceleration is connected with the crisis of traditional public forms of power, in the context of the civil wars – linked with the «Investiture Crisis» – which outbroke in 1080s. With the civil wars that the traditional framework of public power collapsed quite suddenly; lordly power in the countryside extended over more people, became harder and more formalized; the countryside divided itself in different blocs of territorial lordships in a quite homogeneous way. Special consideration is given to the structural analysis of the legitimating languages used by local actors, such as custom, pacts and violence, and their complex interactions, exploring the connection between practices and discourses, actions and documents.
Parole chiave: Signoria; Medioevo; Campagne; Mutazione feudale
Keywords: Lordship; High middle ages; Countryside; Feudal mutation
Civic annals, public memory and civil rhetoric in Italian medieval communes
In medieval Italian communes the gure of the professional politician began to emerge towards the end of the 12th century. Although recent research has highlighted the growing importance of rhetoric in the political discourse of the age, not much has been known thus far about how these laymen trained for their role. An analysis of civic annals – a historiographical genre that also arose at the same time – allows us to describe the building blocks of their education. Indeed documents such as the Chronicon Faventinum – a local chronicle from the early 13th century – bear traces of all the rhetorical-stylistic skills and the factual-historical knowledge necessary for these edgling politicians to function effectively on the urban political scene.
Parole chiave: Chronicon Faventinum; Storiografia medie- vale; Honor civitatis; Eloquenza civile
Keywords: Chronicon Faventinum; Medieval historiography; Honor civitatis; Civil rhethoric
Poors within the market. Book-keeping in the Franciscan convent of Avignon at the end of the Middle Ages
The analysis of the most important historiographical contributions that we can read in the book of Lenoble, L’exercice de la pauvreté, is the starting point for the discussion. Lenoble’s volume is the fruit of a large investigation on Franciscan, ecclestiastical and civic archives which give us a wider and deeper perspective in studying the economy of the Franciscan convents. We focused our attention about data presented in the registers, the composition of budgets and the different, complex meanings of administration and managing the Franciscan poverty. A voluntary poverty which was thought, observed and realized in the convent of Avignon, and on his papers, between 1359 and 1478. The discussion is enlarged along three different sides. The crucial importance of these sources for the history of the construction of pauperistic identity cultivated by the Franciscan Order. By comparison the results coming out from Lenoble’s book with the thesis that mantains the Franciscan Rule is a “human life form”, a modus vivendi “absolutely subtracted from the grip of the Right” and, at the same time, a proposal for “a use of world without any form of appropriation”. The relationship between the administration of the Minoritic poverty, the rules that shaped it and the ascetic-spiritual dimension of the Franciscanism.
Parole chiave: Gestione della povertà francescana; Realtà economiche cittadine; Credito e bilanci nei conventi francescani
Keywords: Franciscan poverty administration; Urban economy; Credit and budgets in Franciscan convents
uid society. The Florentine economy in the late Middle Ages
This essay takes as its starting point the publication of the Italian translation of Richard A. Goldthwaite’s monumental book on the Florentine economy between 1300 and 1600. It aims to stimulate a discussion on some of the most «provocative» ideas of Goldthwaite’s work, and propose some re ections suggested by his interpretive hypotheses. Goldthwaite shares the «optimistic» view on the crisis of the 14th century that tends to prevail among economic historians, and describes the second half of the century as a phase of great expansion of the Florentine economy. The innovative analysis of the American historian is the starting point for a re ection on the complex theme of economic integration as a factor of economic growth, including some critical remarks on the «regionalist» theoretical models mainly inspired by the «New Institutional Economics». Moreover, Goldthwaite’s stimulating idea that in the second half of the 14th century Florence experienced a transition from an economic system characterized by the dominance of great companies, typical of the rst half of the century, to a much more uid, fragmented and a-centric stucture. Some considerations on the economic and social transformations of the late Middle Ages conclude the essay.
Parole chiave: Tardo medioevo; Storia economica; Storia sociale; Firenze
Keywords: Late middle ages; Economic history; Social history; Florence
L’ondata di mezzo: movimenti delle donne, femminismi e guerra fredda
The middle wave: women’s movements, feminisms and the Cold War
The essay deals with transnational historiographical debates on women’s movements and feminist waves in the 20th century, looking in particular at the theme of women’s activism during the Cold War era in the United States and Europe. It discusses the case of Italy, on the basis of recent scholarly works that investigate women’s activism in post-war times (The Lost Wave. Women and Democracy in Postwar Italy by Molly Tambor, Oxford U.P., 2014, and Italian Women and International Cold War Politics, 1944-1968 by Wendy Pojmann, Fordham U.P., 2013). The essay challenges the idea that the Cold War was a time devoid of women’s political activism. Instead, it argues that the Cold war «middle-wave» of women’s activism deserves to be included in contemporary feminist genealogies, in order to do justice to different activist generations across time and space.
Parole chiave: Attivismo femminile; Femminismo; Guerra fredda; Generazioni
Keywords: women’s activism, feminism, Cold War, generations