In some places, the short season of Italian steel industry ended with the demise of the factory and the dismantling of its production sites: plenty of activities was replaced by a vast emptiness that is at once urban, economic, social, as well as symbolic and cultural. But what happened when industries went through a deep crisis, were rst privatized and then bought by a multinational owner, and they loose much of their workers but did not disappear? This is what happened in Piombino, a city of the Tuscany coast, which was founded and had developed around the mills. The aim of this paper – based on extensive research on the eld – is to analyse the strategies implemented during the process of deindustrialisation in Piombino’ steel area. The paper focuses on the e effects of the consistent economic and nancial aids – both national and European – and it explores their effective role in creating favourable conditions for the autonomous and self-sustained development of this area. First, the paper shortly presents the socio-economic context of the Piombino area; secondly it summarizes the distribution of public funds in the district and it highlights the strategies that led their use. Finally, it critically evaluates the results in terms of creating new rms, stimulating economic activities, and expanding the employment.
Keywords: Industrial decline; Steel town; Working class; Industrial restructuring.