Fin dall’antichità i profughi sono stati una conseguenza di guerre, cambiamenti climatici o il frutto di precise scelte geopolitiche, come il popolamento e la coltivazione di territori strategici poco abitati. Nell’età moderna si sono venute ad aggiungere altre cause, come le persecuzioni di matrice religiosa, politica o sociale. L’età contemporanea si è poi caratterizzata per le espulsioni di grup- pi non rispondenti al criterio di nazionalità dello Stato di residenza. Ogni epoca ha visto progressivamente aumentare i repertori delle motivazioni all’origine del profugato. Con il Novecento l’esperienza dei profu- ghi si è legata a un fenomeno radicalmente nuovo: l’estendersi su scala globale del controllo delle frontiere e di politiche restrittive di ingresso nei territori statali. In questo nuovo contesto si è imposto il credo umanitario dell’intervento internazionale in favore dei profughi. Senza politiche migratorie restrittive non ci sarebbe stato bisogno di strumenti culturali e giuridici per distinguere con precisione chi poteva essere de nito rifugiato e chi no. Lo Stato, la sfera della cittadinanza e del welfare sono diventati elementi centrali nell’esperienza dei profughi, la cui vita è decisamente condizionata dalle pratiche di acco- glienza adottate dalle società e dalle istituzioni. I singoli e i gruppi familiari in fuga devono fare i conti in primo luogo con il complesso panorama istituzionale in cui sono ora inseriti. Un’analisi dei sistemi di accoglienza dal Novecento al tempo presente non può fare a meno di interrogare il ruolo delle istituzioni pubbliche. Riconoscere il ruolo dello Stato vuol dire innanzitutto mettere in questione la macchina amministrativa e i suoi input politici, interrogarla per af nare gli strumenti con cui solitamente si guarda alle istituzioni, estendere le analisi anche ai soggetti locali e a quelli sovranazionali. I saggi contenuti nella sezione monograca di questo numero di «Meridiana» rispondono a queste sollecitazioni a partire da un caso specifico: quello dell’Italia dalla fine della seconda guerra mondiale a oggi. Sono molti i temi affrontati: i campi per stranieri allestiti dopo il passaggio del fronte e spesso recuperati da strutture costruite dal fascismo, i progetti per il welfare ai profughi elaborati dalle amministrazioni antifasciste, il lascito delle memorie del profugato, le esperienze di accoglienza più recenti, come quelle legate alle guerre civili jugoslave, e in fine gli ultimi anni, con gli arrivi dalle coste africane e mediorientali del Mediterraneo. Il profugo è una gura chiave del Novecento e porta con sé i segni dei tratti distintivi del secolo scorso: le migrazioni, lo Stato, il nazionalismo, l’atteggiamento delle società nei confronti dell’altro. La rilevanza che il tema ha assunto oggi rischia però di svuotare di spessore l’esperienza del profugato, per proiettare sul passato la forma delle categorie del presente. Un confronto tra storia e scienze sociali può aiutare anche la riflessione sul mondo attuale a uscire dalle secche della polemica spicciola quotidiana per utilizzare strumenti concettuali e categorie più corrette e utili al dibattito. Si tratta di questioni estremamente importanti per l’avvenire della società italiana, e non solo. Sono molte infatti le domande che investono con forza il nostro tempo presente: cosa ne sarà del futuro delle storie di chi vive oggi la sua esperienza di profugo in Europa? Quanto saranno lunghe e profonde le conseguenze degli atteggiamenti delle istituzioni europee nei confronti dei profughi?
Archivio pubblico, migrazioni e capacità di aspirare
The electronic communities constitute a new and heterogeneous sociology, since they rely precisely on the absence or impossibility of the face-to-face. In this context, the relation of collective memory to the archive may be seen as evolving two opposite faces. On the one hand, the newer forms of electronic archiving restore the deep link of the archive to popular memory and its practices, returning to the non-of cial actor the capability to choose the way in which traces and documents shall be formed into archives. On the other hand, the electronic archive denaturalizes the relationship of memory and the archive, making the (interactive) archive the basis of collective memory, rather than leaving memory as the substrate which guarantees the ethical value of the archive. Within this frame, migrants are struggling to make the best of the possibilities that are opened to them in the new relationships between migration and mass mediation: for them there is now a greater stock of material from which they can craft the scripts of possible worlds and imagined selves.
Keywords: Collective memory; Electronic archive; Migration.
The «European century of forced migrations» (about 1853-1953, according to Ferrara and Pianciola) has left a legacy that deeply affects European society to this day, as the case of the Austrian candidate to presidential election Alexander van Der Bellen shows. Nonetheless, the actual debate about refugees seems to ignore the deepness of this side of European history: nowadays refugees are conceived by media and institutions as mere victims of dramatic events, not as individuals with an active role on their own life. This kind of «victimary paradigm» is relatively recent but it risks to affect negatively the research on refugeedom, both in historical and social science perspectives. The article discusses this point in relation with the history of reception systems, in particular in post-1945 Italy. Taking into account the most recent literature, I argue that a more complex view is needed. Some issues in particular are highlighted: the mutual in uence between institutions and refugees; the continuum between ordinary mobility and the migration of refugees; the strati cation of refugeedom memories.
Keywords: Forced migration; Refugees reception systems; Refugeedom memories; Victimary paradigm.
I campi in Italia nel secondo dopoguerra
This paper aims to see how two parallel systems of refugees’ camps developed in Italy. One was managed by Allied Armies-UNRRA-IRO for legal refugees; the other was managed by Italian authorities for illegal and/or dangerous immigrants. In the latter, the majority of refugees was originally of Jewish origin. In the former, to a majority of Austro-Germans followed a preponderance of fugitives from Yugoslavia (mostly Croats, but also Slovenians, Serbs and people of Italian origin). The departure to new shores or the repatriation «freed» Italy from these «unwanted guests» and removed from the Italian perception a phenomenon that had a considerable size. Nevertheless, local and national archives give us the possibility to evaluate and reconstruct what happened.
Keywords: post-1945; Refugee Camps; Cold War; Italy.
This article retraces the history of two war relief public administrations for «national refugees» in the aftermath of World War II: the High Commission for War Refugees (1944-45) and the Ministero per l’assistenza post-bellica (1945-47). By examining the preparation and aims of relief programmes, the de nition of different categories of people in need of assistance and policy legacies, the essay highlights the importance given to the matter by the Allied occupation headquarters and the transfer of administrative knowledge between international organizations and the Italian government. The article analyses for the rst time the policies aimed at taking care of and rehabilitating internally displaced persons in Italy after 1945. It shows how the persistence of this problem supported the growth of public action, the recognition of a right to social assistance and the reform of the social security system, marking a discontinuity with the past and contributing to a development, though eeting, of the modern welfare state.
Keywords: Refugee camps; Rehabilitation; Social services
Memorie ferite: esuli e rimpatriati nell’Italia repubblicana
The long lasting wave of Italian refugees, returning to their homeland at the conclusion of World War II and during the decolonization process, arises many questions. First of all the demographical dimension is still unclear, and gures given by historians may present relevant variations. In the second place, their arrival has compelled the administration and political power to better de ne the boundaries of citizenship, and the answers given to the refugees show the cultural limits of citizenship in our country. Moreover, since the many arrivals have received different reactions by their fellow citizens, from solidarity to annoyance, questions concern the reasons of these different behaviours. Finally, recent historical research has shown that the construction of the public memory of refugees has been a sensible political issue in every country. In the case of Italian expellees, the different levels of attention paid to them show that political support and memory depended mainly on their possible exploitation for territorial claims. When they were considered useless for this purpose, they were not included in the public memory and also historical research has been directed to them with an inexcusable delay.
Keywords: Italian refugees; Citizenship; Immigration policy; Public history
The conflict of dissolution of Yugoslavia provoked a humanitarian catastrophe unparalleled in Europe after World War II. In the rst phase of the con ict – between 1991 and 1996 – it caused one million refugees and 1,200,000 IDPs. Italy was the second country of destination in Europe, after Germany, for Yugoslav refugees. About 80,000 Yugoslav citizens settled in Italy between the end of 1992 and 1996. In response to that, Italian civil society mobilized to offer assistance and settlement for the refugees. That mobilization is analysed here with the aim to highlight the processes that characterized and supported the engagement of civil society. Speci c attention is devoted to the widespread hospitality network arranged in Italy between 1992 and 1996. This was the backbone of subsequent immigration policies, and is here considered in the context of the general mobilization of solidarity with Yugoslavia and in the frame of the debate on migration policies in progress in Italy since the late Eighties.
Keywords: Refugees; Former Yugoslavia; Immigration policies; Civil society.
In Italy the reception of asylum seekers and refugees and the process of construction of an institutional system undoubtedly represent a very signi cant issue. In this article I will discuss the different systems and reception centers that have developed in recent years as belonging to two macro reception models. On one side, a model based mainly on control, on the social and physical separation from the rest of the population and on the investment in large centers mostly isolated, and on the other side, an integrated model, widespread on the territory and in the social fabric, with small numbers and the direct involvement of local authorities and the third sector. Assuming a long-term look, these models, even though they arrived to interact and to tend nally – at least from a legal and institutional point of view – to the establishment of a single system, maintained different, if not divergent, features and «philosophies». The article concludes by highlighting three critical aspects of the new institutional reception system: access to asylum procedure and reception in a time when hotspots rule; the massive spread of extraordinary centers in a system designed by emergency; and, nally, the limited opportunities offered to refugees to achieve real autonomy and a satisfactory level of social and economic integration.
Keywords: Refugees; Reception; Segregation; Integration.
During the last two years, Europe has experienced a dramatic increase in arrivals along the central Mediterranean and the Balkans routes. At the same time, Europe has experienced an equally dramatic rise of asylum applications. This increase of asylum seekers ows in the European continent is certainly not new. Another signi cant highpoint in asylum seekers, equal to about 672,000, had already been reached in 1992 when the European Union was made up of 15 countries and another in 2001 (424,000 asylum applications in the EU this time to 27 countries). But what is amazing of today increase is its size and its strength in a given period of time corresponding approximately to the spring-summer period, like it was a seasonal phenomenon. Such a high number of arrivals and asylum seekers, concentrated in just a few months, represents a problem in the management and in the reception of these ows. Starting from these data, the research question is not about why the European Union has failed to manage these ows.
Keywords: Refugees Study; European Asylum Regime; Refugees ows.
The distinction between economic immigrants and refugees is produced by the institutions dealing with migratory ows: the laws of the destination countries, the bureaucratic practices, the work of legal practitioners and of the experts impose (or adapt) these legal de nitions to the concerned communities. The recent history of Italian migration policies is a good example of this process: in 2011, after the Arab Spring and the failure of bilateral agreements on undocumented ows, Italy could neither push back nor deport the immigrants landed in Sicily: this led to a change on the status of immigrants, who became asylum seekers and displaced persons.
Keywords: Refugees; Italy; Migration ows;
Le profughe, i profughi, l’accoglienza: un percorso storico. Incontro con Silvia Salvatici
a cura di Michele Colucci
In this interview Michele Colucci meets Silvia Salvatici. The focus of the discussion is the historical approach of refugee studies. In last years, especially in Italy, refugee studies are involved in a public debate about migration policies, welcoming experiences, new routes of displaced people. The historical approach helps us to understand reasons and consequences of contemporary migrations. This reconstruction examines issues like NGOs and international organisations policies, Italian government strategies in post- war years, new relocations in Cold War period, the question of Balkan wars in 1990s, gender differences in displaced people movements.
Keywords: Asylum; Contemporary history; Republican Italy; Welcoming policies; Migrations; Refugees.
Piani di sviluppo locale. Giuseppe Orlando, la Zona pilota e Bosa
Maria Luisa Di Felice
The Sardinian Pilot Project was instituted in 1956. It aimed to stimulate a local-level integrated development program and concerned an area between Oristano, Bosa, and Macomer, as one of the Mediterranean areas with opportunities for growth. The Project was promoted by OECE and put in place a system of virtuous connections, a network for exchanges and relations, and processes of cooperation, cultural integration, and economic and social interconnection. This way it was possible to enhance the existing «heritage», and induce the emergence of latent potentials, needed for the implementation of development processes. The initiatives undertaken during the four year in which the Project Sardinia was operational, con rmed the growth prospects based on the more effective use and development of resources and knowledge that are expression of a speci c local situation, which the studies of sociologist Anna Anfossi and economist Giuseppe Orlando contributed to de ne. Precisely, the analysis of the Development Plan marked out by Orlando is here addressed to issues concerning Bosa and Planargia and it allows to appreciate the signi cance and success of this initiative, but also to detect the value of Orlando’s scienti c contribution, expression of that complex and cultural heritage that the Project Sardinia was able to develop in its short life.
Keywords: Giuseppe Orlando; Bosa, Sardinia; Local integrated development; Human capital.
Healing gardens. Progettare verde pubblico terapeutico condiviso
Giuseppe A. Micheli, Giulio B. Micheli, Ivan G. Ramaroli
The article crossbreeds the approaches of different branches of knowledge to explore a recent and innovative way of designing and enjoying public urban spaces: the so-called «quiet gardens», planned to be shared both by the urban dwellers on the whole and by that part of them who are affected by dementias in the early-middle stage of advancement of the disease. Currently, there are no pharmacological strategies to cure these pathologies, and it is a questionable, though today widespread, strategy, that a cognitive stimulation could be an effective response to the problem. Actually, there is an alternative way to follow: when the cognitive capacity wanes, the identity and proprioception of an individual can be supported by sensorial stimulus. In this direction and during the last two decades, the concept of «Alzheimer’s garden», taken as an Hortus Conclusus, fenced in to safeguard a sort of «protected freedom», is evolving towards forms of «Healing Gardens» integrated into public urban spaces and enjoyed by every dweller. The second and third part of this article, relying on some of the more signi cant experiences in North-America, gives a basic check-list of the design criteria, develops a design simulation and pinpoints some ordinary criticalities (one of them by de nition unsolvable) of these trials of urban planning.
Keywords: Early Onset Dementias; Urban Design; Therapeutic Landscapes; Public Spaces.