This paper aims to see how two parallel systems of refugees’ camps developed in Italy. One was managed by Allied Armies-UNRRA-IRO for legal refugees; the other was managed by Italian authorities for illegal and/or dangerous immigrants. In the latter, the majority of refugees was originally of Jewish origin. In the former, to a majority of Austro-Germans followed a preponderance of fugitives from Yugoslavia (mostly Croats, but also Slovenians, Serbs and people of Italian origin). The departure to new shores or the repatriation «freed» Italy from these «unwanted guests» and removed from the Italian perception a phenomenon that had a considerable size. Nevertheless, local and national archives give us the possibility to evaluate and reconstruct what happened.
Keywords: post-1945; Refugee Camps; Cold War; Italy.