Le sfide dell’accoglienza. Passato e presente dei sistemi istituzionali di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo e rifugiati in Italia

Autore: Chiara Marchetti
In: Meridiana. 86
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In Italy the reception of asylum seekers and refugees and the process of construction of an institutional system undoubtedly represent a very signi cant issue. In this article I will discuss the different systems and reception centers that have developed in recent years as belonging to two macro reception models. On one side, a model based mainly on control, on the social and physical separation from the rest of the population and on the investment in large centers mostly isolated, and on the other side, an integrated model, widespread on the territory and in the social fabric, with small numbers and the direct involvement of local authorities and the third sector. Assuming a long-term look, these models, even though they arrived to interact and to tend nally – at least from a legal and institutional point of view – to the establishment of a single system, maintained different, if not divergent, features and «philosophies». The article concludes by highlighting three critical aspects of the new institutional reception system: access to asylum procedure and reception in a time when hotspots rule; the massive spread of extraordinary centers in a system designed by emergency; and, nally, the limited opportunities offered to refugees to achieve real autonomy and a satisfactory level of social and economic integration.

Keywords: Refugees; Reception; Segregation; Integration.