Urban waste and toxic waste: the structural factors of ecocamorre
Italy has a widespread and deeply-rooted fabric of public services, especially in its north-central regions, in spite of a scarcity of industry in the South. Nevertheless, the country’s waste disposal systems still display serious structural deficiencies. The author reviews the modes of penetration of illegal and criminal activities in the disposal cycle of both urban and special waste, as well as the types of environmental damage they produce. Notably, he looks at issues such as the failure of most Italian regions to set up a joint management of urban and special waste, the rise of costs of disposal in landfills as a result of agreements between landfill owners, and between landfill owners and groups of entrepreneurs, etc. The most serious environmental damage caused by waste disposal is the uncontrolled burning of waste in various areas in the Italian peninsula, and especially in certain areas in Campania that have earned the nickname of «Terra dei fuochi» (Land of Fires).