Il confine orientale d’Italia: realtà antiche e contemporanee a confronto. Un’introduzione
Alessandro Cristofori, Matteo Proto, Mattia Vitelli Casella
In this brief introduction, the three organisers of the conference The eastern border of Italy from Roman times to the Treaty of Osimo, between reality and ideology, which was held in Bologna on 5th November 2021, explain the reasons for the scientific meeting and identify some guidelines for interpreting the historical problem of Italy’s north-eastern border, with particular reference to the topics touched upon by the papers presented at the conference and published here.
The state of knowledge and the still open problems concerning the borders of Roman Italy are presented, pointing out that their evolution is known in broad outline, while some details concerning the positioning of the borders and the absolute chronology remain unresolved. In addition, some examples are presented of how the borders of Roman times, whether real (such as the Augustan border at Arsia) or presumed (such as the praetentura Alpium or the claustra Alpium Iuliarum) have been evoked on several occasions during the negotiations to define the borders of modern states.
Paul the Deacon’s History of the Lombards is the main source for the history of Italy’s eastern frontiers. On the backdrop of further narratives from the age, the paper analyzes Paul’s account on the nature, location of the frontiers, together with their aristocracies between the sixth and eighth centuries.
The essay aims to verify whether the formula of the “Bloodlands” coined by Timothy Snyder is also applicable to the “Adriatic frontier”. To do so, the article proposes a profile of the logics of political violence during the first half of the 20th century in the Adriatic area. Thus a series of clearly identified “seasons” is highlighted: the “season of flames” (1915-1921), the season of state violence (1922-1941), the “season of massacres” (1942-1945/6), a new season of state violence (1954-1956). This overview confirms the reputation of the Julian-Dalmatian region as a “laboratory of the contemporary” in its most dramatic aspects, while the comparison with the “Bloodlands” shows similarities and differences. The essay concludes by discussing the advantages and limitations of comparative history.
During the Cold War the “Gorizia Gap” was one of the keys to the defence of Western Europe against a hypothetical invasion by the Warsaw Pact. Taking this emblematic place as a starting point, this essay investigates the problems connected with the defence of the eastern Italian border in the first post-WW2 decade. The analysis starts at the end of 1945 and follows the evolution of the defence plans drawn up by the Anglo-American allies, the Italians and Nato to face first a localised Yugoslav aggression, and then a large-scale Soviet attack.
Migrazioni ed etnogenesi nel medioevo. Chi abitava la Dalmazia nel IX-X secolo?
Rastko Pietro Chirco Popovich
In the article, I propose to apply to the study of the Serbs in the early Middle Ages the constructivist and ethnogenetic approaches that have long been employed in the historiography on the Croats. I advance the hypothesis that the term 'Sorabos' mentioned in the Annales Regni Francorum in the chapter on 822 does not represent the first mention of the Serbian people, but a pseudo-ethnic and collective term, in some respects analogous to the concept of Slavs as defined by Florin Curta. Considering the concept of Serbian ethnos from the point of view of 'processuality' prompted me to put forward the hypothesis that those readings attesting to the existence of Serbs in the Balkans prior to the period in which De Administrando Imperio was written (c. 940) have no basis in the sources.
The article investigates the imperial titles of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, and of Qin Shi Huangdi, the first Chinese emperor, analysing the motivations behind the adoption of particular formulas. The perspective offered by the comparison focuses above all on the political and administrative implications that the two titles had, to the point of assessing their respective outcomes with the successors to the throne of the Roman Empire and with the new Chinese imperial dynasty, the Han.
The essay focuses on one of the many factors at play in the summer of 1943 in Italy: the arrival of German troops. Using mainly sources conserved in the Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv (BA-MA) in Freiburg, it outlines the dynamics with which some of the Wehrmacht units were deployed in the weeks following 25 July in two sectors of Italian territory: South Tyrol and western Liguria. The first case highlights the German commands' concern over the equipment and effective preparation of their troops and their fear of possible Italian reactions to German disarmament. The second case shows how the Germans' attention was largely catalysed by the possible Allied landing on the Ligurian coast and the directives received for the disarmament of the Regio Esercito in the event of a failure to react against the landing
On the basis of unpublished sources, this essay investigates whether between the 1970s and 1980s the group of social historians at Bielefeld University can be considered as a historiographic school. Were the methodological premises, the historiographical practices as well as the scientific production sufficiently distinctive, uniform and influential to talk about a “Bielefeld School“of History? Rather, this case study shows the ways and forms of the international establishment of a specific academic milieu consisting in a cohesive, but not homogeneous network that shared a similar methodological premise, a thematic focus on society and sought to establish the Historische Sozialwissenschaft as a renewal of West German historical science in the field of historians through joint action.
Giulia Iannuzzi, “Geografie del tempo”
Adriano Prosperi, “Una rivoluzione passiva”
Omar Coloru, “Il Regno del più Forte”
Laurent Feller, “Richesse, terre et valeur dans l’Occident médiéval”
Andrea Gamberini, “Inferni medievali”
François Hartog, “Chronos”
W. George Lovell, “Death in the Snow”
Beatrice Pestarino, “Kypriōn Politeia”
Giacomo Girardi, “I beni degli esuli”
Maria Pia Casalena
John Foot, “Gli anni neri”